The image that you have here above is a map of a single filter that was obtained to a wavelength of 250 picómetro like part of the program H-ATLAS (Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey) covering about 180,1 square degrees of the firmament.
Each point corresponds to a distant galaxy detected by ESA’s Herschel space observatory, specifically the ‘heat’ emanating dust grains that lie between the stars of each galaxy.
The image shows a map of the galactic north pole captured by the SPIRE spectral and photometric image receiver from Herschel. The galactic north pole is far from the disk of the Milky Way and offers a clear and unimpeded view of the distant Universe, beyond our galaxy.
During the project, SPIRE and another Herschel instrument, PACS (camera and spectrometer with sets of photoconductive detectors) were used. The result adds thousands of individual points.
Here you have the image with higher resolution.
The most galaxies are spirals, but there are elliptical or irregular shapes, among others. Several hundred billion stars, with enormous amounts of gas and dust, all intermixed and interacting through the force of gravity, result in a constant movement that ends up determining the shape of the galaxy